Auto Math 101

Posted: January 14, 2015 in Tech



4.030 x 4.030 x 3.750 x .7854 x 8 = 382.6 ( 383 Chevy )



EXAMPLE:   4.030 X 4.030 X 12.87 X .009 = 1.88cc



EXAMPLE: 4.030 X 4.030 X 12.87 X .030 = 6.27cc











64cc + 1.88 + 6.27 =84.15cc




EXAMPLE: DIVIDE 355 BY 8 = 44.375

MULTIPLY 44.375 BY 16.39 = 727.306





EXAMPLE: 4.030 ÷ 3.48 = 1.158



EXAMPLE: 5.700 ÷ 3.489 = 1.637




EXAMPLE: 3.48 X 6000 ÷ 6 = 3480 FPM














EXAMPLE: .477 ÷ 1.5 = .318 [ LOBE LIFT ]

.318 X 1.6 = .5088 [ GROSS VALVE LIFT ]




Quick Reference – “Bore Spacing”

Bore spacing is the distance from the center line of one cylinder bore to that of the adjacent cylinder. Assuming the bores are perfectly round, this distance can be determined by measuring the distance from one cylinder wall edge to the far cylinder wall of the adjacent cylinder. To save all of our Greaseralley readers the trouble, here’s the bore spacing (in inches) on common American V8’s:


  • AMC: 4.75
  • BUICK 350: 4.24
  • BUICK 400-430,455: 4.75
  • CADILLAC 472, 500: 5.00
  • FORD FE: 4.63
  • OLDSMOBILE: 4.625
  • PONTIAC: 4.62




Video  —  Posted: January 9, 2015 in Tech
Tags: , , ,

            In 1974, three artists from San Francisco found themselves in Potter County, Texas, burying ten Cadillacs nose first into a Texas wheat field alongside Interstate 40, an art installation that would eventually come to be known as Cadillac Ranch. This is an eventful week for the Cadillac Ranch, one of the most celebrated roadside landmarks in the country: on Saturday, the site celebrates its fortieth anniversary, and on Tuesday, Stanley Marsh 3, the art installation’s eccentric millionaire benefactor, died. Marsh’s legacy was tainted in his final years after a string of teenage boys  alleged he had sexually abused them.  (Read Skip Hollandsworth’s obituary of Marsh  here.) In the wake of those revelations, Amarilloans weren’t sure what to think of the Cadillac Ranch anymore (one even suggested  bulldozing it), but this unease largely lifted after a settlement to a lawsuit revealed that Marsh no longer owned the property. And so “the hood ornament of Route 66,” lives on, constantly changing as passing graffiti artists leave their stamp on it.

Amarillo native and longtime  Texas Monthly  photographer Wyatt McSpadden, who went to work for Marsh when he was nineteen years old, has been documenting the evolution of the art installation since before the first car went into the ground. “The Cadillacs were buried when I was 22 and just getting started as a photographer. Those pictures still have a life,” he said. In 1978,  Texas Monthly ‘s associate art director Nancy McMillen called up McSpadden and gave him his first assignment for the magazine: to photograph Marsh, whom he dubs “Amarillo’s Mad Hatter.” “All of this has been a huge thread in my life. I hate that he went out with such an awful stain but I have the option to remember the good things, and that’s what I’m doing.” McSpadden’s photos and captions of the Cadillac Ranch over the years follow below.

One of the few images that remain of Cadillac Ranch in its original condition, taken in 1976. Once the graffiti mobs got started there was no stopping them.

The last car purchased was the first car buried. Here Doug Michels of Ant Farm, the group of California artists that created the project, seals the deal on the 1949 model in an alley in northeast Amarillo.

The Cadillacs were buried in sequence from the oldest, 1949, to the newest, 1964. There are 10, each car representing the latest version of the famous Cadillac tail fin.

Members of Ant Farm moved to Amarillo for several months to plan, survey the property, purchase and bury the cars. This fellow is a neon artist from England, Roger Dainton, who happened to be in Amarillo on an assignment and became an honorary member of Ant Farm by helping to bury the cars.

There was giant party to mark the completion of the Cadillac Ranch in late June. Everyone was invited from the bluebloods of Amarillo, the hippies, and here a ranch foremen from a nearby cattle operation and his wife.

Cadillac Ranch 1990. The caddies were painted several times in a variety of colors and shades of grey. The pink period was one of the most popular. No paint job stayed unmarked for long.

Another version of the chameleon Cadillac Ranch. Probably taken in the early nineties.

Cadillac Ranch has been located in active wheat pastures in both locations. In the winter and early spring the rancher would have steers out grazing. Cattle out to pasture can be squirrely but this steer was very patient in posing for me. Perhaps it was his third leg that made him so agreeable.

Ant Farm artist Chip Lord returned to check on his herd a couple of years after they were buried.

Cadillac Ranch was moved in 1997 from its original site along Interstate 40 to a new spot two miles west along the interstate. The move was necessary because Amarillo’s growth was westward and the property where the caddies were buried was becoming increasingly valuable.

A Cadillac dangles from a crane during the 1997 move two miles westward along Interstate 40.

My younger son Stuart in 1989. He and his brother, Trevor, would join me on my picture making excursions to the ranch. I was using a special panoramic camera for a project and thought it would be a good format for the caddies.

Sons of Anarchy_Charlie Hunnam, Maggie Siff pub1_Image credit FX

Sons of Anarchy: Costume Identity and the Outlaw

Sons of Anarchy portrays the fictionalised world of an outlaw motorcycle club; although the plots are dramatic in the extreme, many of the details are firmly based in realism, including the costuming. Series creator Kurt Sutter has described it as pure soap opera, but this family drama has earned the tag of “Hamlet on Motorcycles”. It has been embraced by pop culture and by the biker community, and spurred an upsurge in sales of Harley Davidsons (and a $25k SOA branded bike).

Motorcycle club culture took off after WW2, when returning veterans with experience of riding bikes on service, and often undiagnosed post-traumatic stress, took to the lifestyle looking for the camaraderie and thrills their return from war had left them missing. The press quickly seized on the growth of these groups (top tip: don’t ever call an MC a gang) and brewed some good old-fashioned hysteria about anti-social behaviour and the ruin of society. A comment is attributed to the American Motorcycle Association about 99% of bikers being law-abiding citizens, so those who wanted to identify with the outlaws called themselves One-percenters, to the point where it was literally adopted as a badge of dishonour. According to the carefully-crafted show mythology, Sons of Anarchy Motorcycle Club (Redwood Originals) comes from the second boom of the post-Vietnam era, where the veterans were even younger, no longer treated as returning heroes and often had become part of drug culture.

Like all such groups, their identity has to be conveyed to the outside world which in turn reinforces the sense of belonging of its members. Kelli Jones, costume designer on the show, studied Mexican and Asian gangs as well as the biker culture past and present to get a feel for the look. Central to the identity of any MC, even more so than the motorbikes, are the sleeveless leather jackets they wear called cuts or ‘kuttes’. Covered in embroidered patches and pins, they tell you who these people are, what they have done, how they conform to the rules and how they deviate from them. Comparable to military uniform they convey rank and experience to those inside and outside the club.

Charlie Hunnam as Jax Teller. All members of an MC wear a cut denoting the name of their club, as was patches indicating their status and attainments.
Charlie Hunnam as Jax Teller. All members of an MC wear a cut denoting the name of their club, as was patches indicating their status and attainments.

The code of the outlaw motorcycle club calls for 3 patches on the back of the cut; a central design with curved lettering panels (Rockers) above and below naming the club and its location. The show’s production designer created the patches with the ‘Reaper’ central emblem being designed by San Francisco tattoo artist Freddie Corbin (who featured in a cameo in season 2). The lettering caused more problems: “Now I do know the lettering in the original patch design was too close to a real MC and we had to redo all of the patches before the show ever aired” Kelli says. Clubs claim ownership of certain colour schemes, for example the Hells Angels are also known as the Red and White, after the letters and background colour. Sutter himself did a lot of research in preparation for the show, spending time with real-life clubs he won’t name, and blogged: “I am aware of the sacred nature of patches and colours. I have enormous respect for the colours associated with established outlaw clubs — red and white, black and white, green and white. The colours of Sons of Anarchy are ROYAL BLUE and WHITE.” This is a world where imitation is not always seen as the sincerest form of flattery. Kelli again, “Every department has gone above and beyond to make sure we tread the line of being realistic without being offensive to any of them.”

Behind this protective attitude is the fact that membership of these clubs and the associated display cannot be bought, it has to be earned. The show regularly shows us the difficulty of gaining the right to wear the cut and certain patches to go on it. The journey of a prospect enduring his probationary period of consideration (minimum 1 year) has been used in the show’s plot: we saw two prospects endure a session of Russian roulette, and Half-Sack Epps was only posthumously granted full status in season 3 after dying to protect another member’s child, his cut draped over his coffin. The real-life accounts of prospecting seem similar to the show: the hazing, the shittiest tasks, guard duties and loyalty being tested. There are countless plot examples which tell the importance of the cuts to a member: on their release from prison at the start of season 4, the first thing they are greeted with is their cuts. They put them on first before they hug their brothers and get on their bikes. As they reach Charming, they are stopped by the new sheriff who reminds them as a clause of their probation, they are not allowed to wear their cuts in public. It’s a serious power play, stripping them of the right to flaunt their identity and influence in public. When a rival MC threaten to take his cut, Jax says “Pull the trigger, man. That’s the only way this leather’s coming off my back.”

The other patches denoting rank establish our initial understanding of the dynamics of the relationships between these men, and underline changes such as Tig’s removal of his Sgt at Arms patch being the proof of his alienation from Clay, followed by its handover to Chibs when Jax takes over emphasising their respect and trust for each other and Tig being sidelined. The First 9 patch gives the wearer a heroic status within the club as founders of the group, and even allows some forgiveness for sins against the club, like Piney’s attempt on Clay’s life, though not enough to save McGee of SamBel when he’s caught turning traitor. In season 5, close-ups of Clay show the indentation of the leather where his President patch used to be. In these scenes it’s a visual reminder of his loss of status.

Ryan Hurst as Harry ‘Opie’ Winston. Opie’s Men of Mayhem patch indicates that he has killed in the name of the club.
Ryan Hurst as Harry ‘Opie’ Winston. Opie’s Men of Mayhem patch indicates that he has killed in the name of the club.

Another significant patch is the Men of Mayhem badge we see Jax and Opie wearing over their right breast pocket. We are introduced to them both as conflicted young fathers, troubled but essentially sympathetic characters we are supposed to identify with, but according to the show folklore this patch means both have killed for their club. It’s supposedly the equivalent of the Hells Angels Filthy Few patch (as alleged by some law enforcement organisations; the HA refuse to explain their meaning). These patches reveal a darker, more chilling side to their characters which we see more of as the show develops. By season 4 we see Juice given his Men of Mayhem patch and watch his psychological struggles with the deeds he has carried out to earn it.

Pin badges are also worn, the most noticeable example being Clay’s paratrooper jump wings showing you his military background. Others are club symbols like the Reaper. These motifs are repeated in their jewellery, particularly the heavy rings they all wear which in Jax’s case have been used as a device to show where he is with his loyalty to the club versus his family. Tattoos are similar, with the Reaper a repeated theme. The tattoos are treated almost as a permanent version of the cut and the consequence of someone displaying a symbol they are no longer entitled to is graphically shown in season 1, when former member Kyle has failed to black out his tattoo as instructed.

Ron Perlman as Clay Morrow. Clay’s costume look is basic and old school – he would rarely buy new and probably keeps the same clothes in rotation for years.
Ron Perlman as Clay Morrow. Clay’s costume look is basic and old school – he would rarely buy new and probably keeps the same clothes in rotation for years.

Within the club’s conventions, any deviation is equally revealing. There are several different styles of cut, with different collar details, and individual customisation. Bobby, who is first introduced to us as a working Elvis impersonator, has silver braid round the edge of his waistcoat-style cut, old-school with a hint of showbiz. Piney’s cut is denim, the original choice of MCs; Kelli says “we wanted Piney to reflect the past versus the present/future.” This marks him out as a relic of the old days, a dinosaur, and suggests conflict with change.

The clothes they wear do the same job; within the framework of simple workwear in a limited colour palette the variations give you clues about the characters. Kelli’s view: “Clay is old school. So his jeans are old school and shirts are basic. With the feeling he’s had them for years, if not decades. Tig is a soldier, a workman if you will. He wears Dickies shirts and faded black jeans with the leather cuffs. Middle age bad ass.” Bobby wears patterned shirts with a western cut, a hint of his musical side. The most interesting division is between the clothes the older members of the club wear and the younger. Their look is drawn from urban culture, “more hip hop and less hillbilly” as Kelli puts it. With low-slung jeans and white t-shirts, it emphasises the new generation and the divisions within the group. Charlie Hunnam has talked in interviews of how he researched the wardrobe he and the team put together for his character, but some viewers have felt that the white training shoes are not authentically ‘biker’ enough. Kelli’s view is typically blunt: “Honestly anyone who criticises Charlie’s look can go fuck themselves. That guy did an ENORMOUS amount of research with a certain club and that’s what the younger ones wear.”

In season 5 and 6, Jax’s look has subtly changed with his responsibilities as club president, and we see him wearing his white t-shirts less and instead more long-sleeved shirts with a long, narrow silhouette and the usual dark colour palette. To get the look she wanted, Kelli has had the shirts custom-made and put into a limited production run for sale through the FX website.

Jax's sometimes controversial ‘hip hop’ vibe reflects, initially at least, his position as one of the younger members of the MC, interested if not preoccupied with style over comfort.
Jax’s sometimes controversial ‘hip hop’ vibe reflects, initially at least, his position as one of the younger members of the MC, interested if not preoccupied with style over pure comfort.

The Sons are not the only group in town. Other gangs are shown, with their own visual trademarks, from the Nords and their redneck racism in season 1 and 2 (workwear and wifebeaters), the Mayan MC (cowboy boots), and the Neo-Nazis with skinheads and army boots. The One-Niners, a black drug-running gang from Oakland are all hip-hop, dressed like rap stars, but fellow Oakland criminals from Damon Pope’s organisation wear smart suits in dark colours looking like sober well-to-do businessmen. This helps us follow the complex and constant changes in alliances by giving us a visual shorthand for who the Sons are dealing with. They exist in a world where almost everyone belongs to some sort of group, whether it be law enforcement or outlaw.

The tribal nature of the MC culture has provided a huge wealth of detail used in the costuming to bring the characters to vivid life and make the world of SOA seem rich, three-dimensional and believable.

By Lesley Holmes.

Lesley likes movies with space and dinosaurs, and B&W screwball comedies. She is fascinated by fashion history and particularly obsessed by underwear. She sells repro 1940s style knickers at her site Dorothy May Lingerie; she also conducts fashion talks on various topics.

With thanks to Kelli Jones.


Picture 6zephyr team dogtown west los angeles skateboard

ca. 1975, the original Zephyr (Z-Boys) skateboard team at the Del Mar Nationals, the first US national skateboarding competition — Shogo Kubo, Bob Biniak, Nathan Pratt, Stacy Peralta, Jim Muir, Allen Sarlo, Chris Cahill, Tony Alva, Paul Constantineau, Jay Adams, Peggy Oki, Wentzle Ruml – Image by Craig Stecyk.  While the Z-Boys non-conformist style and brash behavior did not sweep the winners podium, every major skateboard company took notice and came after their stars with lucrative offers and endorsement deals. Jeff Ho and Skip could not compete with the big brand’s deep pockets– within 6 months, the Zephyr team we be no more.

z-boys quote

Born out of the gritty Venice Beach surf slumtown called Dogtown– where you had better have eyes in the back of your head– the infamous Z-Boys were the motley badass boys of skateboarding assembled by the co-founders of Jeff Ho Surfboards and Zephyr Productions–Craig Stecyk, Jeff Ho, and Skip Engblom. This scrappy group of street kids, who gave skateboarding  teeth, were loyal disciples of their radical father figures who put Dogtown style on the map. These kids would carry the torch and create a skateboarding cultural revolution that started as an extension of their surfing, and grew into a distinctive Z-Boys style that forever changed the skating world.

Heavily influenced by Dogtown’s mean streets, Jeff Ho’s surfboard design and attitude was a direct reflection of the neighborhood’s tough low rider and graffiti lifestyle. Ho and crew thumbed their noses (or more accurately “flipped the bird”) at the mainstream squeaky-clean surf culture, and the Zephyr surf team fiercely guarded their turf against any invading non-locals who wanted to ride their waves. And if the locals didn’t get you by hurling chunks of concrete and glass as you surfed, the insanely dangerous conditions of the decaying Pacific Ocean Park would. The mangled and jutting pier pylons were there waiting for a screw-up so they could impale you, or snap your precious board to pieces.

dogtown zephyr surf team jeff ho

Dogtown’s legendary Zephyr surf team with c0-founder and designer Jeff Ho far right.

The Zephyr surf team was the mafia of the waves, and that same toughness and independent spirit was manifested in their talent and angst on the pavement. Jeff and Skip nurtured and forged this young gaggle of waifs and strays, many from broken homes or no place to go, into the world’s best skaters. The kids all found their role at Jeff Ho’s shop– whether it was sweeping the floors or rolling joints for Jeff– everyone found a unique way, on their boards and in the shop, to contribute, complement, and propel the Z-boys forward and keep the team as a whole at the top of their game. It was a wild environment for a kid to grow-up in– legend has it there was plenty of pretty crazy shit going on back then behind closed doors that no one on the outside needed to  know about.

This young crew of Dogtown skaters were driven ruthlessly to aggressive, competitive perfection by Jeff Ho and Skip Engblom. They reached the peak of fame, completely up-ending and innovating the the sport along the way– first with their unique surf-style skating, and then setting the world on fire with the epic pool sessions and radical vertical skating. Ironically through the deeply engrained drive of Jeff and Skip, and their own natural human desire for personal fame and riches, their star skaters would end up unraveling the group and ending the Zephyr organization as they knew it. Legends and brands rose like a phoenix from the former Zephyr team’s ashes– Stacy Peralta, Tony Alva, and the one whose talent and aggression most strongly epitomized the heart and soul of the entire Zephyr crew– Jay Boy Adams.

jay adams marina skate park 1978

1978 — Jay Adams, Marina Del Rey Skate Park — Image by David Scott

“In contests, Jay was simply the most exciting skater to watch. He never skated the same run the same way twice. His routines were wickedly random yet exceedingly tight and beautiful to watch: he even invented tricks during his runs. I’ve never seen any skater destroy convention and expectation better. Watching him skate was something new every second– he was “skate and destroy” personified.”  

–Stacy Peralta

Skateboarder Steve Cathey

“For me, skateboarding started in 1965, so by the time the Dogtown era came around I’d already been skatin’ for 10 years. When I started it was clay wheels and mostly home made decks. We were just trying to copy surfing. Everything about skateboarding had to do with surfing. It was all about fun and a way to surf when the waves were shitty.”

–Jay Adams

Jay Adams at the Dogbowl — Image by Glen E. Friedman. The mid 1970s in California were the scene of unprecedented drought conditions where residents were restricted from watering their lawns, and it wasn’t  long until hundreds of swimming pools across L.A fell prey and were drained to conserve precious water. The Z-Boys revolutionized skating by repurposing empty pools for vertical skating and in the act invented innovative moves like the frontside air (Tony Alva). The “Dogbowl” is the most legendary, named for the owner’s dogs that were seemingly always at the pools edge checking out the Z-Boys in action. It was the Z-Boy’s friend Dino’s home, and he was terminally ill. His parents allowed the pool to be drained so that his friends could come and hang out, skate and party. Glen Friedman took a ton of shots that are iconic to any skateboarding fan out there. Read more here…

“I went to the party at Dino’s house and saw the pool before we drained it the next day. It was kinda like a dream skatepark because there weren’t any rules. Only the boys got to ride.”

–Jay Adams

Jay Adams at the Dogbowl — Image by Glen E. Friedman

“I was a P.O.P. local from birth. The ORIGINAL MASCOT. My dad rented surfboards under the Northside of the pier. All the guards at the park used to let me in for free. FUCK Disneyland, I had P.O.P., surf and all. I surfed the cove with Mickey Dora before leashes were invented.”

–Jay Adams

craig stecyk skater quote z-boys

“Jay Adams was not the greatest pool skater, nor was he the greatest bank skater, or the greatest slalom skater or the greatest freestyler. The fact is, Jay Adams’ contribution to skateboarding defies description or category. Jay Adams is probably not the greatest skater of all time, but I can say without fear of being wrong that he is clearly the archetype of modern-day skateboarding. Archetype defined means an original pattern or model, a prototype. Prototype defined means the first thing or being of its kind. He’s the real thing, an original seed, the original virus that infected all of us. He was beyond comparison. To this day I haven’t witnessed any skater more vital, more dynamic, more fun to watch, more unpredictable, and more spontaneous in his approach than Jay. There are not enough superlatives to describe him.”

–Stacy Peralta

L.A.’s vastly paved architectural valleys, canyons, and reservoirs fenced-off and separated the varying neighborhoods, and would became a massive cement playground of unlimited potential seen through the eyes of young skaters years before skate parks were around or readily accessible. 

“He (Jay Adams) didn’t give a shit about money, and I don’t think that’s why he did it to begin with. He never was interested in any of the material rewards that came from skateboarding. I think that he just basically had a total Fuck You approach to the whole commercialism of skateboarding.”

–Tony Alva

Jay Adams — Image by Glen E. Friedman

“Once pool riding came in– that was like ALL we wanted to do.”

–Jay Adams

1976, Jay Adams — Image by Glen E. Friedman

“People just wanted to have what he (Jay Adams) had, you know? They just wanted a piece of him. “

–Jeff Ho

This low-slung, surf-influenced, fluid style was the hallmark of early Dogtwon Z-Boys skating– which was all about style. If you didn’t have great style, and looked good while you skated– you weren’t anything– you were stinking the place up. “(Surfer) Larry Bertelman was the fundamental impact on the Z-Boys thing– the Z-Boys thing was Larry Bertelman on concrete. That’s what we were all trying to do, because Larry Bertelman just blew the doors off everybody.” –Nathan Pratt. And then the Z-Boys set the bar again with vertical skating, and the world has never looked back…

“Jay Adams may not have been the world’s best skater, but he was the man, the real deal, the original, the first. He is the archetype of our shared heritage.”

–Stacy Peralta

1976, Jay Adams — Image by Glen E. Friedman

“I missed a lot of good times, doing things that I shouldn’t have been doing. There are certain mistakes I’d like to change, but I’m not going to trip on it to hard.”

–Jay Adams 

Jay Adams, King of the “Bert-slide” — Image by Craig Stecyk. The Dogtown Z-Boys skating style was heavily influenced early-on by Hawaiian surfing badass Larry Bertelman. “I remember being in the Santa Monica Civic Auditorium and watching Hal Jepsen’s surf film ‘Super Session’ and a young Hawaiian surfer named Larry Bertelman came on the screen…” –Stacy Peralta. “He, like, put his hands on the wave– he was one of the first guys that I remember doing that. So we started copying that on the ground.” –Jay Adams. 

“I believe this photo of Jay (above) is the most stunning and strikingly clear representation, of any photo ever taken, of modern skateboarding. It contains all the elements that make up what modern-day skateboarding has become: awesome aggression and style, power and fury, wild abandon, destruction of all fear, untamed individualism, and a free-spirited determination to tear, shred, and rip relentlessly. Jay should’ve had it all, and it makes me so sad that he didn’t.” 

–Stacy Peralta 

1978 — Jay Adams at Marina Del Rey Skatepark — Image by David Scott

“Some kids are born and raised on like, graham crackers and milk– Jay was born and raised on surfing and skateboarding, you know.”

–Tony Alva

jay adams bowl

dogtown z-boys craig stecyk quote

zephyr skate team z boys skateboarder

Z-Flex skate team, back to front, left to right– Marty Grimes, Jimmy Davies, Eric Andersen (Froggy), Solo Scott, Jimmy Plummer, George Wilson, Shogo Kubo, and Dennis Agnew (Polar Bear). — Image via Venicepix

Credit: The Selvedgeyard


Posted: October 17, 2014 in History


“Hell’s Angels love to fistfight. There’s never a shortage of drunks or foolhardy motherfuckers willing to take us on, and  a lot of times we’ll take on each other. Armond Bletcher stood  6″8″ and weighed 350 lbs. He was so strong he could pick up a couple motorcycles  and put them on the back of a pickup truck. In the early ’70s Armond could bench 705 lbs., but he had to arch his back to do it. He was never in competition, but he took steroids and was unbelievably big.”

–Ralph “Sonny” Barger


Jesus-H-Christ this was a big ass dude. Depending on who’s telling it, Armond Bletcher was somewhere between 6′ 3″ – 6′ 8″, and tipped the scales around 300 – 350 lbs. A friend of the Fresno Hells Angel, and a feature favorite with the staff at Easyriders magazine, Armond was literally a giant among men and a controversial figure to this day. There are many colorful tales– It’s reported that as a doorman he got away with shooting a man to death, that he was a known hitman, also Frank Sinatra’s bodyguard, and that he took horse steroids to achieve and maintain his enoromous size.

He met his match at the wrong end of a .357 when a baseball bat beating couldn’t diffuse his anger– just pissed him off more. He was dead at 33 yrs old. Armond had allegedly gone after his cousins to “mess them up” when they refused to put him on their shop payroll, which he desperately needed to show an honest source of income while being investigated by the Feds for numerous illegal activities. Having his personal lifestyle and exploits plastered on the pages of Easyriders magazine probably didn’t help matters much.


armand bletcher easyriders magazine harley chopper

“His willpower is strong enough to put down wine, women, and song in pursuit of his occupation, but his chopper remains his achilles heel.” –Easyriders magazine article, ca. 1976

“Anyone who has been on a 500-pound Hog knows that it is one heavy machine to handle– and because of its weight. If for any reason you get off balance, it’s really a bitch to get it upright. Flop it on its side and it usually takes two guys to stand it up again.

With this in mind, flash on Armond Bletcher, a 6’3″, 310-pounder who dwarfs his big 80, and makes it appear as if he’s putt-putting around on a Yamaha 125.

He earns his coins by being a strong-arm bodyguard –strong-arm meaning that his bad news, mangler-of-men appearance, and obvious capability is used instead of a gun to protect his clients.”

Armond Bletcher achilles heel harley easyriders

“Armond lives the good life of his wealthy clients while on duty and manages to spend three to four hours lifting weights everyday on his own time, while chug-a-lugging quarts of milk along with his five meals a day. ‘Not huge meals– just five spread out across the entire time I’m awake.’

His chopper, as with most chopper riders, is his “escape”– so much so in his case that he won’t even allow himself near it until after his workout, and most of the time he restricts his riding to weekends because, ‘Once I get on it, I want to go, and keep on going– and the hell with everything else.’” 

armond bletcher chopper harley easyriders

“He’s been lifting weights for seven years, since he was 20with 60-pound bells, and has maintained a daily schedule except for “A couple of times when I broke my fist in fights.”

Really ape for his lifting and good health, he doesn’t drink or smoke, has 22″ biceps, can press 350 pounds, can bench-press — “I cheat a little with an arched back.” — 590 pounds. His daily routine consists of four sets of each exercise, sets of at least six reps– such exercises as curling 270 pounds.”

Armond Bletcher harley easyriders

“He alternates his lifting schedule to workout different parts of his body, every other day, and increases the amount of weight as the exercise becomes too easy. He doesn’t workout for the usual definition and small waist, but rather lifts to develop and maintain overall brute strength. As he puts it, “A bear has a gut, and you know what he can do to a guy.” (His waist is 38″.)

Working out in his own gym (“Because I don’t like the creeps that frequent the public gyms”), he puts his lifting before anything else– he feels it’s vital to his occupation. An occupation that requires he stand near his client, and merely from his size and looks, be able to discourage most people from hassling his client or even think about attempting anything, yet at the same time being physically able to do battle if the occasion calls for it.

He’s a protector, an enforcer, a collector, and yet he has one admitted weakness– his chopper.”

armond bletcher harley motorcycle

Armond Bletcher’s Harley chopper photographed at the Malibu ER Ranch. Late ’70s or early ’80s Frank Kaisler (via)



young Armond Bletcher

“…A shot of Armond when he was probably 19, in Santa Cruz, and I am the chesty blonde. :)” –Indian Sue (via)

young armond bletcher motorcycle 1963

Armond Bletcher’s prized motorcycle and car, ca. 1963


young Armond Bletcher car 1963

A young Armond Bletcher with his prized car, ca. 1963

Credit: The Selvedge Yard

Jamey is a good friend to us here at greaseralley and we want you guys all to meet the guy behind his killer work. Jamey is  from Meridian, MS, and has had a love of creativity all his life. He is a very skilled, talented craftsman who is the creative force behind HandmMade Seat Co. LLC, HandMade Media LLC, Jamey Jordan Signature Series LLC, and HandMade Art LLC.


Jamey graduated from Meridian High School in 1997 with an emphasis in Drafting Technology and from Meridian Community College in 2001 with a degree in Drafting Technology. He furthered his education in the automotive field by completing the Collision Refinishing/Street Rod Body Fabrication program in December 2002 at the Laramie, WY, campus of WyoTech. In the fall of 2003 he completed a nine-month program at Tulsa Welding School, Jacksonville, FL

After graduating from WyoTech and Tulsa Welding School, Jamey worked in several body shops in Mississippi and Louisiana, using the skills learned at Wyo. It didn’t take long before he realized that there was so much more that he could do.

In 2007 a friend asked him to build a set of seats in a bomber style. After that Jamey was hooked, realizing the creativity that he could put into developing his own style. Using a Mittler bead roller and dies that were available, he started HandMade. In the summer of 2012 Mike Mittler and Jamey joined together to create the JJ Signature Series product line of bead rollers and dies. The product line is now at over 60 items.

Last year Jamey had the opportunity to go to Blairsville, PA campus of WyoTech to work with students in different programs, teaching them the uses of the Bead Roller and the new Dies that he has developed.

His work has appeared on West Coast Customs, Powerblock, Search and Restore, Muscle Car, Stacey DavidGearz Speed Channel and Hot Rod Garage. You can also find him demonstrating his art at SEMA in Las Vegas, Goodguy shows and Art Galleries.

You guys get a chance check him out:





I know I have been MIA for a few month. I have been working on some other projects and had to let this slip away for a time. Well, I am back and will be posting on a more regular bases. New Pin-ups on the way and a few new surprises………..

80’s Rockabilly Style of Brian Setzer….      

Their style was pretty tough back in the hungry years before the big payday when they rocked on a steady diet of engineer boots, creepers, skinny jeans, polka dot thrift shop tops with cut-off sleeves, bandanas and a sneer. Soon the look was gobbled up by the mainstream made-for-MTV crowd and regurgitated into a uniform with elements of new wave / new romantics fluffy hairdos, argyles, leopard print, gold lamé, Zodiac boots, and over-sized sportcoats.

Setzer was honored with being the first artist since Chet Atkins to be granted a Gretsch artist model guitar built and named for him. A true reflection of how strongly he was identified with Gretsch, and how he helped cement them with a new generation as the true player’s guitar for anyone serious about Rockabilly and the like.



A young and well-coiffed Brian Setzer of the Stray Cats back in the early 1980s



1982, Paris– A couple of lean, mean rockers Thierry Le Coz & Brian Setzer. Brian and the Stray Cats hit the road for the UK and Europe early on, as the Teddy Boy movement and the strong  love abroad for the Sun Records & rockabilly music legends (Elvis, Carl Perkins, Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis, Eddie Cochran, Gene Vincent, Duane Eddy, and many more) called them there to make their mark. Thierry (yep, he’s French) is a great guitarist and started out in the Rockabilly band Teen Kats back in the early 1980s, and met Brian and the boys while they were there touring Europe.  Le Coz moved to Austin, Texas in ’84, played with Will Sexton in Will and the Kill among others, and is still doing his thing. I love that pic of them, great style.







1983– Dave Edmunds and Brian Setzer of the Stray Cats rock New York City’s Roseland Ballroom with an encore of Eddie Cochran’s “C’mon Everybody”















































Ford used the 9 inch rear from around the 1957 model year right up until the early 1980’s in cars and trucks. It was not the only axle used, but was by far one of the best. Variations by Ford exist in the size of the outer axle bearings in the housings and carriers both, as well as with the spline count on the axle shafts. Generally most cars received the small axle bearings and 28 spline axle shafts. Exceptions to this were the ultra Hi performance Boss 302’s, Boss 429’s, 427’s, 428 CJ/SCJ and the 429 cars which received the 31 spline carriers and axle shafts. Some of the heavier cars like the Galaxies also received the larger wheel bearing housings.The trucks varied more, early half ton trucks got the 28 spline axles and carriers, while sometime in the early 70’s the switch was made to mostly 31 spline axles and carriers for most trucks. Most of the later trucks also received the larger axle bearings housings.One exception to this was the Bronco’s from 1966 to 1977, they stayed with the 28 spline units. A small bearing housing can be differentiated from a large bearing housing by the size of the nuts and thread used to retain the brake backing plates to the housing, the small bearing housings use 9/16 socket size nuts with 3/8” fine thread, while the larger bearing use 11/16” socket size and 7/16” fine thread. Gross Vehicle Weight ( GVW ) would determine which axle housing many cars and trucks received.
Because many one half ton trucks continued to utilize the 9 inch (both 2 wheel & 4 wheel drives) right up until about 1982 these housings are by far the most abundant(*Note:my recent findings are that the 9 inch axle was either utilized again in limited quantities in some 1985/6 truck/van applications or continued to be used up until that time by Ford in limited quantities*), and with many 1973 to 1979 pickups to still be found on the road and in junk yards,these are the most plentiful. And since the “Limited slip” or Locking rear end (often referred to as a “POSI”) came to be a popular option and more plentiful starting in the early 1970’s, many of the units found today at car swap meets and shows are the units pulled from trucks with the 31 spline carriers with the “Traction Loc” style posi unit. The actual car posi units which were primarily 28 spline carriers can be much more difficult to locate since the supply is limited to the few cars and early Broncos (and some early trucks) which received them-the 28 spline posi’s.When it comes down to actual shafts as well, since the truck lug pattern in most cases differed from the car, and due to the bearing size differences, 28 spline car axle shafts are much more abundant than car 31 spline axle shafts, and often aftermarket shafts have to be purchased if one wants to use a truck 31 spline carrier in a car 😦
The carrier housing I see most is the C7AW-E, it is the one most commonly found in the trucks right up until around 1982. I am not sure if this “E” version of the case came into use in 1967 or in subsequent years, but it is by far the most abundant case being used in both full size Ford cars and trucks throughout the 1970’s. I have heard that it has a higher nodular iron content and better casting than the earlier single ribbed cases it replaced and that is why it remained in use so long, and the double ribbed N case was no longer needed for passenger car/truck applications (this also coincided with the demise of most performance engine options in the 70’s)- I have never seen this substantiated however. Most carriers I have seen for sale at swap meets/ car shows are this C7AW-E case which leads me to believe most were pulled from trucks and cars from the 1970’s.
Axle housings as noted in the examples below also evolved over the years, the earlier housings used in cars from 1957 to mid 1960’s tended to be the weakest and had abrupt ending but welded carrier centers to tubes and a smooth backside. Later housings appeared in either 1966 or 1967 with the familiar “Hump” in the backside middle and stronger tubes.The later truck housings received even beefier center carrier housings and tubes and this style of center carrier housing is best suited for drag cars or narrowed rear ends in my opinion due to the added strength in the middle. Most of the early housings are ok for the average street performance cars. The popular early swap being the 57 to 59 Ford for the 65/66 Mustang.I haven’t completed an axle housing width chart yet, but here is what I can tell you about some that I have seen, they often group Mustangs and Fairlane axle housings together as often it is true they are the same width, but I can tell you for a fact, the distance between spring perches is different between Mustangs and Fairlanes.Spring perches must be cut and re-welded inorder for the swap to be performed. The “rough “ widths I keep in mind for Mustangs are the following: 52” for 1965 to 1966 (the same width as 64-65 Falcons and 62 to 65 Fairlanes-as in the Mustang line, most however never received a factory 9 inch), 54” for 1967 to 1970 (same as 66 to 69 Fairlane,Torino,Comet & Cyclone non station wagons-cars with 351 and up engines received 9 inch units-as did some 302 4V cars with optional gear ratios) and 56” for the 1971 to 1973 Mustangs-cars with 351 engines and up receiving the 9” housings.Keep in mind as mentioned, the Fairlane spring perch distances were not the same as the Mustang. All the Galaxies I have seen from throughout the 1960’s used the 9 inch rear, regardless of engine size.

How to Identify some typical Ford 9 inch Centers

I have heard various stories as to the reliability of the WAR marked cases, some say avoid them like the plague, others say this is false.Here is what I understand, while having the extra ribbing like the N case, they do not have the nodular iron content and are prone to cracking at the bearing support.They seem to have been used on the 57 to 60 Fords from casting dates I have seen.Another early case, the WAB was similar to the WAR case with the double rib and lower nodular content. I do not have a photo example at present.I believe this case utilized the larger 3.063 side bearings.

The N Case vs WAR Case

Standard or WAR cases, were cast in gray cast iron which has a grain structure that does not have the best shear strength characteristics. The N stands for nodular iron, which is made by adding magnesium to molten iron. What this does is change the grain structure from flakes to nodules – much stronger and less likely to fail under shear load.The case of course most desirable is the N case, first used on the 427 Galaxies around 64-65 I believe.They are most often found behind the later 428CJ and 429CJ cars.From what I have seen don’t expect to find them in 390 or 289 Hipo cars.The N cases went with 31 spline centers and are for rugged duty.And believe it or not, they were also used in some FE equipped Ford 1/2 ton 4X4 pickups!

Here is the early N case, the C4AW-B casting, which can either have the N or not.

Have also viewed a N case marked with an “N” with a C2AW-4025-A casting number,it was used in conjunction with a C5AW-4668-C Daytona pinion support.Case was double ribbed, this casting number is not listed in my books or references, will have to do further research regarding this one.

The C7AW-E case seems to have been in use for quite sometime, have found them with date codes up to 1981.Other standard cases encountered: C1AW-4025-C,C4AW-4025-ASome standard cases are also machined to take the larger 3.063” side bearings, most cases however (including N cases) will take the 2.892” side bearings. Aftermarket spools and cases are available that accommodate even larger bearings-3.250″ and 3.812″, but Ford used just the two sizes from what I have seen.The carrier I have seen with the 3.063″ larger side bearings is the C7AW-G marked single ribbed case, it came from a late 60’s Galaxie.

Other standard pinion supports encountered: WAT B2(on a WAR case),C0AW-A,C6AW-4668-A,C7AW-C(guarded support as well) and a D2SW-4668-C(marked with the 4668).The D2SW-C seems to be the most common encountered through 1979 on the C7AW-E cases I have viewed.

Earlier Daytona pinion supports: C5AW-4668-C

8″ information:

The casting number should be C2OW-4025-F, NOT C2DW listed for the case.Another later 8 pinion support with guard built in that I have seen had casting number C6OW (the 6 however may have been a 5-this support came out of a 65-66 mustang center).

Later improved carrier for the 8″ found in 67 and up

Note the presence of fill plug, and that the casting number is moved to the outside of case, while other previous 8 and 9 inch carriers it has always been on the inside.The number here is the familiar C7OW-4025-A.

Visually Spotting the 9″ and 8″ Axle Housings

Shown above is the typical 1967 and up 9″ (lower) and pre-1967 8″ housing (upper).Note no fill plug on back of the 67 and up housing, this is true for the 67 and up 8 inch housings too.Earlier housings, like the 65-66 Mustang 8″ pictured have the fill plug in the back, this is true for the earlier 9″ as well.

One of the ways many people spot a 9″ rear end in the car is by looking for the hump in the center of housing, this is not always the best way, as 9″ housings made prior to sometime in 1966 do not have the this large center protrusion.The one shown above is out of a 63 Galaxie, note its roundish appearance, two dimples and fill plug in housing back.

Here is the housing style familiar to most, note the large center protrusion or simply the “hump” in the middle.Housing also has the two dimples, but note lack of fill plug.This housing is out of an early Bronco.

The little brother to the 9″ housing is the 8″ housing, note its more oval appearance when compared to the above two 9″ housings.This one is out of a 65-66 Mustang, note the two dimples and fill plug.

Another area of concern when swapping axle housings into earlier Mustangs (65-66 models especially)is the diameter of the outer axle tube.Note the taper on this 8″ 65-66 Mustang housing, a smaller U bolt and lower shock plate were used originally with these cars.The HIPO 289 cars were the only 65-66 Mustangs to recieve factory 9″ axles, the tubes are tapered as well at the end to utilize the same lower shock plate as the regular 65-66 Mustangs.

Notice this axle tube has no taper at end,as is typical for most housings.A typical early Mustang swap is a later Granada housing, were the non-tapered tube can become an installation problem at times.

Axle Shafts

Shown above is a 31 spline shaft end in a 69 Cyclone CJ

Ford used either 28 spline or 31 spline axle shafts with the nine inch, the eight inch came only in 28 spline, as did the majority of nine inch car applications.For the most part eight inch and nine inch car axle shafts will interchange between housings of the same width,spline count and bearing size (ie. 8″ 67 Mustang 28 spline axle shafts will work in 9″ 67 Mustang housing, etc.).A method to identify 28 spline axle shafts can be by looking at the center brake hub area, a rectangular slot in the center will indicate 28 spline axles.The 31 spline axle shafts will have a different appearance, with one small center chamfer and two outer holes in the center hub, however, 28 spline shafts can also appear like this to, so it does not always indicate 31 spline shafts (see photo below). Early axle shafts of the 28 spline variety cannot be shortened, due to either a reduced diameter between spline end and bearing end (early Mustangs,Fairlanes, Falcons etc.), or because of a tapered shaft which doesn’t allow for re-splining (early full size).It appears starting around 1967 the 28 spline shafts became more solid and the shaft diameter increased along the entire length, so shortening is possible and they can be be resplined to their original 28 count.Most 31 spline shafts can be shortened and resplined with no problems.

Rear Axle Tags

Rear axle tags if present on your housing can aid in identifying what is behind your center for gears,splines etc.Ford has changed the tag over the years, but generally the application number-which begins with the W on line one, the gear ratio and date code are always given.Tags are generally found attached to the passenger side of carrier assembly secured by one of the nuts on the housing studs.Here are some examples I have:

Here is the early style tag used by Ford, this one is off a 62 Galaxy with a 3.00 open 9 inch.Tag reads C2AA4001 DV 100, second line: 3.00 1MA

Here is a common Mustang tag WCZ-V identifies it as a 67-70 Mustang and 67-68 Cougar 8″ rear with 2.79 ratio, open.Note no L between 2 and 7 on second line.

A “posi”, equa-lock or traction lock rear is identified by an “L” in between the 1st and 2nd digits of the ratio given on the second line of tag.Here is a 2L80 ratio with tag number WDJ-B,which corresponds to a 8 inch used in 65-66 Mustangs.

This tag is off an open 3.25 ratio 66-70 Fairlane or 67 to 69 Comet with an open 9 inch differential.Note date code of 7BD ( 7= model year:1967,B= Month:February and the D= week: 4th week of Feb.1967)

Ford changed the layout of the tags sometime in the early 70’s or late 60’s, here is a WFE-BK2 tag, followed by a date code of 4E24 (April 24,1974), the second line now gives besides the ratio-here a 3L50, the ring gear actually used inside-this one is a true 9″ gear.This tag is off a 74 Ford truc


Here is an example tag of a 9 inch that isn’t quite up to the full measure,it is a 3.50 ratio, but followed by that are the numbers 8.7 which denote that this carrier is sporting a ring gear of an actual 8 3/4 inch diameter.This one is off a 1970 Bronco, built 3rd week of April 1970.This would have been a 28 spline unit when checked in manual.

How to identify a Posi

The two basic types of “posi” units (posi is the G.M. name for its positive traction system which has been become a part of the nomenclature) are the early Equa lock and the subsequent Traction lock units ( I will refer to them here as “spools” to simplify things). I am not exactly sure when the Equa-locs first appeared, early units are scarce – I haven’t seen many prior to 1964/65 and these are quite rare.From what I have seen the Equa locs were used up until 1969, which is when I believe the Traction Loc units first appeared. There are visual and internal differences between the two spools and most parts do not interchange.

Shown above is an example of an equa loc in its carrier, you will note the recessed bolt holes and 5/8” headed bolts, as well the rough cast appearance of the cover assembly, it is not machined as it is in the Traction Loc units.

Internally the number of clutch disc and plates differs between the equa loc and trac loc spools, the equa loc having only 3 fiber plates and 4 steel with one large belveder spring applying force.The trac loc unit utilizes 4 fiber plates and 5 steel plates, with 4 smaller springs applying force.Both equa lock and trac loc units were available in 2 pin and 4 pin varieties, in either 28 spline or 31 spline versions.The four pin 31 spline unit would be more commonly found as a trac loc piece. The four pin being the heavier duty unit utilizing 4 spider gears vs just two in the two pin variety (as noted in figure above a four pin variety will have actually just 3 pins and a two pin will in reality just have 1 pin- the number of spider gears is actually what is being referred to).Shown below are the internals of a four pin equa loc, note the five “fingers” on the steel clutch plates-the tiny circular tabs on outer edge- (trac loc units will have only 4).

The Traction Loc

Shown above is an open 28 spline spool (on left) and a traction loc “Posi” 28 spline 2 pin spool ( to the right).

Here is a close up of the trac loc spool, note recessed bolt holes through cover for holding ring gear on.

Notice the flat surface around holes on the open spool.

The heads of the bolts which pass through cover and fasten ring gear to the spool are also smaller on the trac loc piece 5/8” socket size, and they use a thin metal washer.

The bolt retaining ring gear on the open spool is 3/ 4” socket size, no washer used.

Above are a 28 spline 2 pin traction loc unit and a 31 spline 4 pin trac loc unit, notice anything wrong?

The arrows are pointing to the cracks in the 31 spline unit removed from an N case carrier.

Unfortunately this is the end result, a destroyed posi unit, this is even the improved cover – D0O part number, earlier units were even more prone to cracking here, thus the necessity for the Detroit Locker units used behind many of the higher performance applications.

Gears, Yokes etc.

Here are two nine inch ring gears side by side, one from a 3.00 ratio (thinner gear), the other from a 3.50 ratio (thicker).An easy way to spot a nice ratio after a while is by visual id.-the thicker the gear the better the performance ratio, thinner the gear= less performance, more fuel economy and better highway performance.

these two gears are the same ratio- 3.00, but one is only 8 3/ 4” diameter, the other a true 9” when gear is installed in the case, a true 9″ ring gear will have very little clearance between housing and large gear (most noticeable at bottom), while an 8 3/4″ setup will have almost enough room to put your finger tips into between gear and case (but don’t due it- it can hurt).Don’t feel slighted if you find you only have an 8 3/4″ setup, they are plenty strong, Ford used them behind the HiPo 289 applications in many Mustangs and others.


Can you spot the difference in the above two pinion gears? Both are 10 tooth gears taken from 3.50 gear ratios, but one has been used behind a Daytona pinion support with the larger inner bearing (see above sections for discussion on Daytona pinion support identification).Note the larger bearing on support to the left.

These two yokes are quite similar and take the same U joint, except the shorter one is used with the larger bearing Daytona Pinion used in an N case. I believe the shorter yoke was necessary due to the added size of inner bearing.When installed on there respective carriers, supports equal out to approximately same height.I am told that the standard yoke can be machined down to work with the Daytona pinion.

Crush sleeves are used when setting up most 9 inch carriers to set bearing load, but on the N case with Daytona pinion a non-crush solid spacer is used, shown above are the two side by side (solid spacer on right).
No guarantee as to the accuracy of this data.

Year & Model

Axle Length


1965-1966 Mustang 57.25 inches  
1967-1970 Mustang 59.25 inches  
1971-1973 Mustang 61.25 inches  
1977-1981 Versailles  58.50 inches  
1967-1973 Mustang, Torino, Ranchero, Fairlane 59.25 inches to
61.25 inches 
1957-1959 Ranchero and station wagon 57.25 inches  
1966-1977 Bronco 58 inches  
1977-1981 Granada/Versailles 58 inches  
1967-1971 Comet, Cougar, Mustang, Fairlane 59.25 inches  
1971-1973 Mustang 61.25 inches  
1964 Falcon 58 inches  
1967 Cougar 60 inches  
1967 Fairlane 63.50 inches  coil springs 
1972 Ford Van 3/4 ton 68 inches  
1973-1986 Ford Van 3/4 ton 65.25 inches  
1957-1959 Ranchero and station wagon  57.25 inches  narrowest 9″ housing
1966-1977 Bronco 58 inches 5-on-5 1/2 inch diameter bolt circle 
1967-1973 Torinos, Rancheros, Fairlanes 59.25 inches or
61.25 inches
1967-1971 Comets, Cougars, Fairlanes  59.25 inches   
1975 Mustang II 8″ 57.00 inches  
1974 Maverick 8″ 56.50 inches  

Where To Find The Nine Inch Rear Axle

1967-1973 medium and big block Mustangs and Cougars 1966-1971 Fairlanes, Torinos, Montegos, Comets, and other Ford intermediates with big blocks.
1957-1959 V8 Fords and Mercurys
1977-1981 Lincoln Versailles & Trucks

Types Of Nine Inch Axle Housings

1967-1973 Mustang/Cougar – light duty, thinnest housing material, small axle bearings, 28 and 31 splines.
1957-1968 passenger car and 1/2 ton truck – medium duty, stronger than Mustang type, 28 and 31 splines.
Ranchero/Torino – heavy duty thick wall housing, 3.25 inch diameter axle tubes with flat tops.
1969-1977 Galaxies (coils), Lincolns (coils), and late pickups (leaf)- 3.25 inch diameter all the way to the backing plate, coil housings have upper control arm mount

How To Recognize Nine Inch Housing Centers

1957 – no dimples, flat center band up the center of the rear cover, bottom drain plug.
1958-1959 – two dimples on back of housing, flat center band, some had drain holes.
1960-1967 – two dimples, flat center band, oil level hole in back cover.
1963-1977 Lincoln, LTD, Thunderbirds had 9.375 inch centers, housings were cut away at the gasket surface for ring gear clearance, one curved rib at the front top portion of differential, strong but no gears.

Tip On Shortening Nine Inch Axles

1972 and earlier 31 spline axles have the ability to be shortened.

28 spline axles are tapered and cannot be shortened and re-splined.
1973 and later cars have a 5-on-5 bolt circle and the axles cannot be shortened.
1967-1973 Mustang axles can be identified by wheel flange:
Oval hole = 28 splines.
Two large holes and counter-sunk center = 31 splines.

Info From:

I found this video a couple of weeks… if not months ago on and thought it had a good vibe.

Video  —  Posted: June 9, 2012 in Art
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